A place for collection of historical references pointing to the Veneti.

Many authors mention people named Oenetoi, Henetoi, Veneti, Venedae, Wends, Vindelicians, Vandals, etc. From some sources one could understand that these names either refer to one language group or even to one Nation. There are also opinions that these authors confused different ethnica groups under the same Name.


Homer (9th century B. C.) records in Iliad[1] the Veneti in Paphlagonia as Enetoi (the Greek did not know the letter v).
Herodotus, historian (5th century B. C.), writes about Illyrian Veneti, about Veneti living around the lower stream of the Danube, and finally about Veneti inhabiting the Northern Adriatic territory.[2]
Polibus (2th century B. C.) added to the description of events during the years 219 to 146 B. C., following: »The land to the Adriatic coast was mastered by another, very old folk, named Veneti ... They speak a different language as the Celts, but what their habbits and their clothing is concearned, they differ from them only slightly /.../ Veneti and Gonomani were persuaded by Roman representatives, to join the Romans«.[3]
Demetrius of Scepsis, grammarian, archeologist (2nd century B. C.), mentions the capital of the Veneti (Enea) in Troas (Asia Minor).[4]
Strabo, historian, geographer (1st century B. C.), designates the (V)eneti in Paphlagonia as the major tribe moving towards Thrace (nowadays territory of Bulgaria) after the fall of Troy (Asia Minor).[5]
Julius Caesar, historian (1st century B. C.), reports about the Veneti living in Gaul (Brittany).[6]
Titus Livy, historian (1st century B. C.), describes how Veneti came up to the coasts of the (northern) Adriatic, also mentioning the river "Timava", which flows through the duskiness of the Škocjan caves (Slovene Ti(e)ma means the darkness).[7]
Pliny the Elder (1st century B. C.) talks about an extensive land, named Eningia, where Sarmatians, Venedi, etc. lived. He also mentions the Venetulani in central Italy.[8]
Tacitus, historian (1st century C. E.), places Veneti on the border of Suebia together with Peucinians, Sarmatians and Fenns.[9]
Ptolemy, geographer (2nd century), mentions exceedingly large nations - the (O)venedi on the whole coastal region of the Venetic gulf (The Baltic sea).[10]
Emperor Julian (4th century) presents evidence of Veneti, who settled in the proximity of Aquilea (Italy).[11]
Jordanes, historian (6th century), notes a numerous nation of Veneti, populating the area between north of Dacia (now Romania) and up to the Visla delta (the Baltic sea).  [12]
In Vita s. Columbani[13] (7th century) (the Alpine) Veneti, who call themselves Slavs, are recorded (»termini Venetorum qui et Sclavi dicuntur«).

In the Fredegarius Chronicle (7th century) we can read about the Slavs designated as Vinedi.[14]
Adam of Bremen, chronicler (11th century), mentions an extensive land Sclavania, settled by Winulians, who used to be called Vandals. The land could have been ten times bigger then Sachsen, especially if we include Bohemians (Czechs) and Polians, since they are not distinguishable from each other, nor by their appearance, or by their language.[15]
In Denmark (from latest 12th century and until the year 1972) the title "King of the Vends" (Latin Vandals) was used for enthroning Danish kings.
Helmold, historian (12th century), records a vast Slavic country, where the ancient Vandals are now named Wends or Winulians.[16]
Wincenty Kadłubek / Vincent of Cracow, historian (12th century), affirms that Poles used to be called Vandals.[17]
Heimskringla, the Chronicle of Norwegian kings(12th century) mentions, that the Black Sea »divides three parts of the earth, from which is the eastern part called Asia, whereas the western part is by some called Europe, and by others Enea.«[18]
Miersuae Chronicon (13th century) equates Vandals with Slavs.[19]
Albert Crantz, historian (15th century), reports about Wandals or Wends, and says that they are Slavs, living as a single nation from Poland to Dalmatia. According to him, the mighty acts in France, Spain and Africa are ascribed to the Wends.[20]
Marcin Bielski (16th century) says that Wandals was once the name for Slavs.[21]
The Pomeranian chronicler Thomas Kantzow (1505-1542) writes that the »Slau(v)s and Wandals are the same thing / .../ just like the Germans are called differently - Germani, Teuthones, Alemanni.«: Original text: »Dan Slaui und Wandali ist ein Dinck / .../ gleich wie die Teutzschen werden oft on Unterschied geheissen Germani, Teuthones, Alemanni.«[22] 
Christophorum Entzelt von Saluelt (16. century) records ancient populousness of the lands east from the Elbe (Laba) river with Wends. At the same time he equates Veneti and Sclavenes.[23]
Sebastian Münster, cartographer (16th century), mentions a once mighty nation on the East sea (Ostsee) named Vandals or Wends. He also reports on Wandals who settled regions in eastern Germany, where inhabitants are called Sclavs or Wends. Original text: »Mecklenburg-Pommern-Preussen: jtem Brandenburg und was dem Polenland zugelegen, alles Wandali geheißen und ihre Einwohner haben auch Sclaven oder Wenden geheißen.«[24]
Antol Vramec, chronicler (16th century), writes in his chronicle for the year 928 the following: The Heneti, who name themselves Sloveni, were at that time knocked down in Germany.[25]
Adam Bohorič, linguist (16th century), links Heneti, Vene(d)ti, Vinds, Vandals and Slavs together as a single nation.[26]
Mavro Orbin (16th century) numbers Veneti, Vends, Vandals, Illyrians, Sarmatians ... among Slavs.[27]
The Chronicle of Brandenburg (16. century) emphasizes the mighty predecessors of Wends, the Vandals, who sacked Rome and Carthage, and mentions their king Genserich as the king of Vandals.[28]
Johann Weichard Baron von Valvasor, historian, geographer (1689), wrote: »Wends and Sclavenes are one folk, Wandals and Wends one and the same nation.« (»Wenden und Sclaven seynd ein Volk, Wandalen und Wenden einerley Nation.[29]
V. N. Tatiščev, ethnographer (17th -18th century), classifies the Heneti as Slavs, as well as the Vandalic or Vendenic state as the first known Slavic state.[30]
A. L. Schlözer, historian (18th century), defended his thesis about Slavs originating from Illyrians and the Veneti.[31]
Vasilij Trediakovski (18th century) classifies Dalmatians, Serbians, Bulgarians ... among Vandals.[32]
Davorin Trstenjak (19th century) wrote about the ancient Adriatic Veneti, who belonged to a Vindish-Slavic family. He accented their affinity with the Aremoric (Brittany) and Baltic Veneti.[33]
In Helmolts Weltgeschichte (end of the 19th century) it is indicated, that the Veneti, Wends and Winds were actually ancestors of Slovenes, and that they used to settle the old roman provinces Vindelitia, Raetia, Noricum, Pannonia.[34]

[1] Iliad, 851.

[2] Herodotus, History vol. 7 / G B Pellegrini, A L Prosdocimi, La lingua venetica, Padova 1967, V, 9.

[3] Polibios, Obča zgodovina, Državna založba Slovenije, Ljubljana 1964, str. 88; p. 92.

[4] On the Martialling of the Trojan Forces.

[5] Strabon, Geografija.

[6] De Bello Gallico.

[7] Titus Livius, History of Rome, Loeb Classic Library, William Heinemann, London, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1933 / Titi Livi, Ab Vrbe condita, liber I, http://www.thelatinlibrary.com/liv.html.

[8] Historia naturalis, Liber IV: 96-97.

[9] Cornelius Tacitus, De origine et situ Germaorum liber (Germania), 64.

[10] Ptolemej, De Geographia, III 5. 21.

[11] The Works of Emperor Julian, Engl. transl. Wilmer Cave Wright, I. vol., Loeb Classical Library, William Heinemann , Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press, 1954, The Heroic Deeds of Constantius, pp. 190- 193.

[12] Iordanes, De origine actibusce Getarum (Getica), Roma 1986, str 43 (XXIII poglavje); S Rutar, Kako važnost ima "Jordanis" za slovensko zgodovinopisje, Letopis Matice slovenske, Ljubljana 1880, p. 86.

[13] J. Bobbiensis, Vitae s. Columbani.

[14] Fredegar Scholasticus, Historia Francorum, I, 48.

[15] Adamus Bremensis, Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum (et Scholast), 11. century, II, 18.

[16] Helmoldi presbyteri Bozoviensis, Chronica Sclavorum et Venedorum, 1171, p. 2, 14.

[17] W. Kadłubek, Mistrza Wincentego Kronika Polska, Warszawa 1974.

[18] Heimskringla or The Chronicle of the Kings of Norway, The Ynglinga Saga, or The Story of the Yngling Family from Odin to Halfdan the Black, Snorri Sturluson c. 1179 - 1241, Online Medieval and Classical Library Release #15b, http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/OMACL/Heimskringla/.

[19] Miersuae Chronicon, Monumenta Poloniae Historica II, 1872.

[20] Albertus Crantzius, Vandalia, lat. Hamburg 1519.

[21] M Bielski, Kronika Polska.

[22] Thomas Kantzow, Chronik von Pommern in Niederdeutscher Mundart (orig. 1535), Dr. Martin Sändig oHG., 1973; ISBN 3-500-28260-1.

[23] Entzelt von Salfeld, Chronicon der Alten Mark, Magdeburg 1579.

[24] S. Münster, Cosmographiae Universalis, Basileae 1572.

[25] A. Vramec, Kronika, Ljubljana 1578.

[26] A. Bohorič, Zimske urice / Arcticae horulae, Vitenberg, 1584.

[27] M. Orbini, Il Regno degli Slavi /Kraljestvo Slovanov, naslov "Historiografska knjiga o izvoru imena Slave in o razširitvi slovanskega naroda in njegovih carjev ter vladarjev z mnogimi imeni in z mnogimi carstvi, kraljestvi in provincami", 1722.

[28] Angelus, Chronik der Mark Brandenburg, 1598.

[29] J. V. Valvasor, Slava Vojvodine Kranjske / Die Ehre des Herzogthums Crain, Nürnberg 1689.

[30] V. N. Tatiščev, Slovani in Rusija, str. 21 / Собрание сочинений. Т.1. История Российская. М. 1994, частъ 1. См. также фрагментъі в сборнике "Славяне и Русъ" p. 16-23.

[31] Х. А Шлецер, О происхождении словен вообще и в особенности словен российских, М. 1810.

[32] B. Тредиаковский, РИ, I-XVI - Римская история ... сочиненная г. Ролленем ... а с Французского переведенная тщанием и трудами В. Тредиаковского ... Т. I - XVI. СПб., 1761-1767.

[33] D. Trstenjak, Raziskavanja na polji staroslovanske zgodovine, Letopis matice slovenske, Ljubljana.

[34] H F Helmolt, Weltgeschichte, fünfter Band, Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig und Wien 1900 (1899-1907), pp. 269, 270 (english: London 1902, ruskij: Petrograd); www.hervardi.com/helmolt.php.